The network cabling industry's fiber optic manufacturers over the last few decades have been on a constant mission to develop the better fiber connector. This means lower cost, lower dB losses, easier to terminate out in the field. There have been over 100 connectors developed over the years but a select few have stood the test of time and beat out their competition. Below we will talk about the most common.
A fiber optic connector terminates at the end of a fiber optic cable and is used when you need a means to connect and disconnect the fiber cable quickly. A fiber splice would be used in a more permanent application. The connectors provide a mechanical connection for the two fiber cables and align both cores precisely so the light can pass through with little loss. There are many different types of connectors but many share similar characteristics. Many connectors are spring loaded. This will push the fiber ends very close to each other so as to eliminate airspace between them, which would result in higher dB losses.
There are generally five main components to a fiber connector: the ferrule, the body, the coupling structure, the boot and the dust cap. Ferrule-the ferrule is the small round cylinder that actually makes contact with the glass and holds it in place. These are commonly made of ceramic today but also are made of metal and plastic. Body-This sub assembly holds the ferrule in place. It then fits into the connector housing. Connector Housing-This holds all sub assembly parts in place and has the coupling that will connect to the customer's equipment. The securing mechanism is usually bayonet, snap-in or a screw on type. Boot-This will cover the transition from the connector to the fiber optic cable. Provides stress relief. Dust Cap-Just as it implies will protect the connector from accumulating dust.
There are many different color codes for connectors and they have changed throughout the years. In the early stages of fiber history, orange, black or grey represented multimode connectors and yellow stood for singlemode. These original codes became difficult with the introduction of metallic connectors so colored boots were developed, like FC and ST. Now, beige boots stand for multimode, blue stands for singlemode and APC or angled connectors are represented by green boots.
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